The example of Cyrenaica is going with our project: "The social philosophy of federalism in current world conditions". The basic ideas of federalism are corresponding to the Arab Islamic World in respect to their demands for democracy, regional self-government, matching their views of cultural diversity and social identity.
The Emirate of Cyrenaica, or "Principality of Cyrenaica", came into existence when Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent Senussi emirate on 1 March 1949, backed by the United Kingdom. Sayyid Idris proclaimed himself Emir of Cyrenaica at a 'national conference' in Benghazi. The recognition by the UK failed to influence the attitude of the United Nations, and Britain and France were directed to prepare Libya's independence in a resolution passed on 21 November 1949.The independence of the United Kingdom of Libya was declared on 24 December 1951, and on 27 December, Emir Idris was enthroned as King Idris I.
The black flag with white star and crescent symbol was adopted by Idris as he was proclaimed Emir in 1947. The flag became the basis of the flag of Libya of 1951, with the addition of a red and a green stripe, representing the blood of the Martyrs and prosperity, respectively. Idris as king of Libya kept the flag of the emirate as his personal Royal Standard, with the addition of a white crown in the upper hoist.
(wikipedia/links ↑ )
On 6 March 2012, mirroring the events 63 years earlier, a similar kind of meeting was held in Benghazi, calling for more autonomy and federalism in Cyrenaica. Ahmed al-Senussi, a relative of King Idris, was announced as the leader of the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council. There is the declaration of the Emirate of Cyrenaica. Text from Libya Herald, June 1st 2013:
"Several thousand Cyrenaican supporters of federalism attended a major rally in Marj today at which Sheikh Ahmed Zubair Senussi, head of the Cyrenaica Transitional Council, declared Cyrenaican self-government. “Cyrenaica is a federal territory within the framework of Libyan state and as of this day June 01 2013 will start to run its own affairs,” he declared at the event, designed to commemorate the 64th anniversary of the 1949 declaration of independence by the Emirate of Cyrenaica.
“Cyrenaica will activate Libya’s 1951 constitution, establish a Senate and Congress to form Cyrenaica’s Parliament, as well as a regional Government,” Zubair announced. He also called for the formation of a defense force to protect Cyrenaica.
In addition, he demanded that the General National Congress transfer funding for Cyrenaica to the Benghazi branch of the Central Bank as well as allocate budgets for Cyrenaican youth development and employment.
There were no bombings and assassinations in the east of the country and no forest fires in the Green Mountains while the NTC was based in Benghazi, he said. These only started after the move to Tripoli. He accused unnamed political forces based in the capital of targeting Cyrenaica because it did not follow their agendas.
According to Moammar Al-Arafi, in charge of the media committee for today’s rally, at least 6,700 people attended. There is no independent confirmation of the figure.
They did so, Arafi told the Libya Herald, in response to recent developments in western Libya – specifically the manner in which the Political Isolation Law was passed and the present uncertain political outlook for the country.
Support for federalism has steadily grown in eastern Libya over the past year as the government has struggled to cope with security and the public has become ever more impatient at the lack of political and economic progress.
Last month, senior a senior Cyrenaican figure closely linked to Zubair told the Libya Herald that because of the growing chaos in the country and the inability of the government to take decisive action, Cyrenaica would declare autonomy and get on with running itself, while awaiting the rest of the country to pull itself together.
Two weeks ago, 3,000 Cyrenaican leaders and community representatives met and decided to proclaim regional autonomy on 1 June 2013.
In his speech today, Zubair refered to the concerns about security in Tripoli and elsewhere. “The people of Cyrenaica will not wait for hostilities in Tripoli and Fezzan to end,” he said. In a reference to the Political Isolation Law, he also rejected any law passed at gunpoint.
He also attacked Congress for dismissing demands for federalism. “We asked the General National Congress officially to hold a referendum on federalism; they ignored our requests.”
* * * * * historically interesting - Saab, Hassan: The Arab federalists of the Ottoman Empire. Amsterdam 1958, XII/322 p.*
Föderalismus in China
Jun Yang: Die Realisierbarkeit des Föderalismus in China
Baden Baden (Germany) Nomos Verlag 2012
Inhalt: Wandel des Staatsverständnisses Chinas und der Versuch des Föderalismus am Anfang des 20. Jahrhundert, die soziale Struktur und das politische System des chinesischen Kaiserreichs von 221 v. Chr. bis Ende der Qing-Dynastie, ein Überblick über einen Versuch des Föderalismus am Anfang des 20. Jahrhundert, die Hintergründe des Versuchs des Föderalismus im China – die Bewegung des Verbunds selbstverwalteter Provinzen, die Entstehung der Zivilgesellschaft in der Neuzeit in China, Der Auftritt der örtlichen politischen Gruppierung, die theoretische Erforschung des Föderalismus, Instabile politische Lage nach der Xinhai- Revolution, die Duchführung der Bewegung des Verbunds selbstverwalteter Provinzen, die lokale Selbstverwaltung der Provinz Hunan, die lokale Selbstverwaltung in der südchinesischen Provinz Guangdong, die maßgeblichen Faktoren für den gescheiterten Versuch, den Föderalismus in China einzuführen, die historische Begrenztheit der Autonomie der Zivilgesellschaft und Initiative. die unreife föderalistische Theorie und das schwache politische Bewusstsein der Bevölkerung, die Beeinflussung des traditionellen politischen Gedankens, die Erfahrungen und Lehren aus dem Versuch des Föderalismus in China, der Versuch des Föderalismus ist eine Herausforderung für die traditionellen politischen Lehren und den Zentralismus in China.
Ylva Monschein (Hg.) Chinas subversive Peripherie
Aufsätze zum Werk des Nobelpreisträgers Mo Yan
2013; 274 pages, Bochum (Germany) ISBN 978-3-89733-283-6
This book is not directly related to federalism. But it is a challenge on a literary level.